What are some good learning strategies that have proven, in multiple studies, to be effective and promoting learning?

Two educational psychologists, Logan Fiorella and Richard Mayer, did a study of dozens of peer-reviewed scientific studies of learning, and compiled this list of eight strategies that have been proven to be effective.

  1. Learning by summarizing: writing a summary, in your own words, of what you think are the most important points from the material you’ve just read or heard.
  2. Learning by mapping: drawing a “concept map” (a particular kind of diagram) showing the relationships between/among key concepts from what you’ve just read or heard.
  3. Learning by drawing: drawing a picture (any picture) that helps you organize the information you’ve just read or heard.
  4. Learning by imagining: similar to learning by drawing, but here you just “imagine” the picture in your mind. (may be used when you don’t have drawing materials handy.)
  5. Learning by self-testing: taking a quiz about the material you’ve just read or heard: either a quiz devised by the instructor, of your own making, or from a fellow student.
  6. Learning by self-explaining: explaining the concepts to yourself out loud just have you’ve read or heard them.
  7. Learning by teaching: explaining the concepts to another student just as you’ve read or heard them.
  8. Learning by enacting: acting out the ideas you’ve just read or heard with some kind of movement, skit, or dialogue.